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Making a Bibliography

Other Bibliographic Tools:

NoodleTools
Create a bibliography/works cited list for your research paper online using this helpful tool. Using Noodletools you can develop a list of books, websites, interviews etc. that you used to create your research paper or assignments.

You Quote It, You Note It
A very clever interactive online tutorial to help you avoid plagiarism.

 

Citing Your Sources:

A book by one author
A book by two authors
A book by three or more authors
A translation
A work with a corporate author
A work in an edited collection
A review of a book or other item
A magazine article
A journal article
An article in an encyclopedia or other
alphabetically-arranged reference book

A newspaper article
An original web page
An article which is part of an Internet database
An electronic text published on the Internet
A personal e-mail
An article from a CD-ROM or other optical disc
Using footnotes to cite, pre-1984 style
Other helpful hints

 

 

 

 

 



Citing Your Sources Details:

A book by one author [Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.
Example:
Ondaatje, Michael. The English Patient. New York: Vintage, 1992.

A book by two authors
[Top]
Format:
First author's last name, first name. Second author's first name last name.Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example:
De Fleur, Melvin L. and Sandra Ball. Theories of Mass Communication. New York: Harper, 1991.

A book by three or more authors
[Top]
Format:
First author's last name, first name, et. al. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example:
Williams, Aretha, et. al. Drama and Melodrama. New York: Grove, 1997.

A translation
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Trans. translator's first name last name [not inverted]. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example:
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. Faust. Trans. Philip Wayne. New York: Penguin, 1996.

A corporate author
[Top]
Format:
Corporate or government author. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example:
United States. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Handbook of Labor Statistics. 1997 ed. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1996.

A work in an edited collection
[Top]
Format:
Author of work. "Title of work." Title of collection. Editor's first name last name [not inverted]. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication, pages.

Example:
Donne, John. "The Flea." Renaissance Poetry. Ed. Leonard Dean. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1950, 11-17.

A review of a book or other item
[Top]
Format:
Author of review. "Title of review." Rev. of title of item being reviewed by author of item being reviewed [not inverted]. Title of publication. Date of issue: pages.

Example:
Van Boven, Sarah. "At Last, Trevanian Speaks!" Rev. of Incident at Twenty-Mile by Trevanian. Newsweek 12 Oct. 1998, 83.

A magazine article
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name [if no author, title of article comes first]. "Title of article." Title of magazine Date of issue, pages.

Example:
Timerman, Jacobo. "Reflections Under the Dictator." The New Yorker 2 Nov. 1987, 47-135.

A journal article
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name [if no author, title of article comes first]. "Title of article." Title of journal Volume (year): pages.

Example:
McNamara, Jennie. "The Psychology of Memory." Transactional Analysis Journal 25 (1995): 141-149.

An article in an encyclopedia or other alphabetically-arranged reference book
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name [if no author, title of article comes first]. "Title of article." Title of encyclopedia, edition.

Example:
Mazo, Earl. "Richard M. Nixon." World Book Encyclopedia, 1995 ed.

A newspaper article
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name [if no author, title of article comes first]. "Title of article." Title of newpaper Date of issue, edition: pages.

Example:
Quindlen, Anna. "Reading and Writing." The New York Times 13 Feb. 1994, nat'l ed.: B27.

An original web page, created for publication on the Internet
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of document or web page." Date of publication. Date you viewed the document. <URL>

Examples:
Linner, Rachelle. "The E.B. White Home Page." Dated Apr. 1996. Viewed 14 Sept. 1997. <http://www.tiac.net/users/winlib/ebwhite.htm>

Cheetham, Robert. "Japanese Garden Database." Dated 9 Mar. 1998. Viewed 15 Sept. 1997. <http://pobox.upenn.edu/~cheetham/jgarden/>

An article which is part of an Internet database or a section of a larger work published on the Internet as part of a searchable database, such as the Britannica encyclopedia or a periodicals service like ProQuest Direct.
[Top]
Note: Often these articles were originally published in print format. It is important to state the article title, the periodical title, and, when appropriate, the title of the service, such as InfoTrac, in your citation.

If the article is the result of a search of the particular database, and is very long, you may use the URL for the main search screen of the service.

Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of periodical. Title of database or service. Date of publication. Date you viewed the article. <URL>

Examples:
"Diana, Princess of Wales." Britannica. No date. Viewed 15 Sept. 1997. < http://www.eb.com:180>

Morton, Andrew. "The Diana I Knew." People Magazine. ProQuest Direct. Dated 15 Sept. 1997. Date viewed 3 Mar. 1998. <http://proquest.umi.com/pqd/mainpage.html>

United Nations. Security Council. "Resolution 1147 (1998)." Dated 13 Jan. 1998. Viewed 18 Mar. 1998. <http://www.un.org >

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. "Paraguay." The World Factbook 1996. No date of publication. Viewed 17 Sept. 1997. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/nsolo/factbook/pa.htm>

An electronic text published on the Internet
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. Title of text. Date of publication. Date viewed. <URL>

Example:
Shakespeare, William. "As You Like It. " Dated 2 Aug. 1995. Viewed 15 Sept. 1997. <http://the-tech.mit.edu:80/Shakespeare/Comedy/asyoulikeit/asyoulikeit.html>

A personal e-mail
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. <Author's e-mail address>. "Subject line." Date of message. E-mail received by: last name, first name.

Example:
Evans, Craig. <craig_evans@pobox.com> "The Network is Up!" 15 Aug. 1997. E-mail to Ellen Berne.

An article from a CD-ROM or or other optical disc
[Top]
Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of disc. Format. Place: Publisher, date.

Example:
Holbein, Hans. "The Ambassadors." Microsoft Art Gallery. CD-ROM. Redmond: Microsoft, 1994.

A book by one author, cited with a footnote
[Top]
* Although the parenthetical style, with a list of works cited, has been the official MLA style of citing sources since 1984, some teachers prefer the earlier style, where each reference is cited at the bottom of the page on which it appears. The information to include is the same, with the addition of the page number, but the formatting is slightly different. See the example below:

Format:
Author's first name, last name, Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication) Page number.

Example:
Michael Ondaatje, The English Patient (New York: Vintage, c1992) 249.

Helpful Hints [Top]

  • The URL, or Internet address, enables the reader to track down the original document. You can cut and paste the URL from the Location field in Netscape to a citation in a word-processed document. If the URL is very, very long, as it may be if you have used a local search engine to retrieve it, you may shorten it.
  • "Date viewed" on the Internet is important, as documents move and change frequently.
  • You will need to make your own judgments about the exact format for citing some of these resources; use these examples as a guide. Include all salient identifying information and be as consistent as you can. Note: There may be no author listed, no date, or other missing info. If there is no author, start your citation with the title. If there is no date of publication, include "No date of publication" in your citation.


Adapted from Winsor School's Virginia Wing Library Web Page